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How do public-private partnerships (PPPs) differ from traditional public procurement and what role should governments play in them? This article views PPPs as collaborative projects with imperfect information between parties. Typical public procurement contracts tackle asymmetric information problems yet limit feasibility of projects: some are not profitable enough to ensure private party participation. Partnership improves feasibility; this justifies PPPs as a form of public good provision and demonstrates how they differ from procurement. Four UK and Russian cases of PPP projects are analyzed within the above framework, focusing on types of contracts, contributions of both partners, and specific partnership elements.
The goal is to develop a regional innovation model for managing the redistribution of transport flows through their local deceleration.
Achieving this goal implies justification of the innovative approach as a key development factor; specificity of the innovative approach for motor transport networks; developing model of organizational efficiency and traffic safety; application this model to the organization and safety of traffic on Perm regional highways.
The following methods were used in the article: data analysis method, mathematical modeling method, design and survey method,
In this paper, we present an innovative automated traffic light system that allows you to redistribute the load on the transport network by applying technical means of organizing traffic without changing the basic parameters of the carriageway.
This article presents the results of a research dedicated to the correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes (n = 110 people). The participants belonged to the young (18 – 25 years old) generation and the adult (37 – 63 years) generation of Russian people. The goal of the research was to reveal a correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes among representatives of different generations of Russians. It has been found that for the adult generation, the “Power Distance” value is positively correlated with economic self-determination and the desire of having money. For the young generation, the “Power Distance” value is not associated with the growth of the welfare, and “Uncertainty Avoidance” encourages economic autonomy but does not create more opportunities for increasing personal material income; “Masculinity” does not bring along the economic self-determination. The study has also demonstrated that economic paternalism is most expressed among representatives of the young generation, and they are more ready to take economic risks in order to increase their income, but the chances of making their personal financial income higher are not as big as those of the adult generation.
Recovery after stroke relates tightly to the white matter integrity. Currently, the main methodology for non-invasive white matter integrity assessment is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI), a state-of-the-art approach which is, however, prone to multiple limitations. Using DW-MRI, it was demonstrated that many pathways including corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum contribute to structural brain reserve after stroke, but only a few of these tracts were found to be useful in the clinical practice. The most widely known measure is an asymmetry of the fractional anisotropy (FA) in CST at the level of the internal capsule, which could be used for predicting motor recovery in acute stroke. Recently, a new complementary motor component of the structural reserve, the so-called alternate motor fibers (AMFs), was proposed for motor recovery prognosis in stroke patients, and it was even reported to correlate with the effect of the transcranial direct current stimulation in chronic stroke. Here, we would like to point out a possible additional sensory interpretation of the AMF that appears plausible after taking into account technical limitations of DW-MRI approach, which may potentially give rise to different interpretations of the same results.
In this research we analyze the demand for performing arts. Since the observed demand is limited by the capacity of house, one needs to account for demand censorship. The presence of consumer segments with different purposes of going to the theatre and willingness-to-pay for performance and ticket characteristics compels to account for heterogeneity in theatre demand. In this paper we propose an estimator for prediction of demand that accounts for both demand censorship and preferences heterogeneity. The estimator is based on the idea of classification and regression trees and bagging prediction aggregation. We extend the algorithm for censored data prediction problem. Our algorithm predicts and combines predictions from both discrete and continuous parts of censored data. We show that the estimator is better in prediction accuracy compared with estimators which account for censorship or heterogeneity of preferences only.
Purpose: The paper explores factors of the low competitiveness of Russian companies assuming that the gap in the endowment of intangible resources is responsible for the gap in competitiveness.
Design/Methodology: The framework of resources-based view is used to examine causality between the resources employed and competitiveness measured by Economic Value Added. Controlling for the most relevant factors, we place an emphasis on those intangible resources that are considered in the literature as being the most critical for Russian companies when contending for global competitiveness: productivity, strategic long-term orientation of companies, quality of human capital, innovative behaviour of companies, foreign investments, and corporate networks. The dataset of more than 1000 Russian companies benchmarked to the dataset of more than 1600 European companies during a period of 10 years: 2004-2013 is analyzed to test the hypothesis put forward.
Findings: Causal effect of the gap in intangible endowment and competitiveness of Russian companies compared with European rivals is revealed. According to our analysis, gaps in productivity, strategy implementation, qualifications of the board of directors and company location play critical roles in the global competitiveness of Russian companies. Meanwhile, underinvestment in structural resources, like those such as ERP systems and other intangible assets, are considered positive factors that reduce gaps in EVA.
Originality/value: The paper introduces original approach for studying the gap in performance caused by gap in employed resources.
This research combines theories of civil society and local self-governance in describing citizen participation in solving neighborhood problems. Similar to neighborhood associations elsewhere, in Russia “organizations of territorial social selfgovernance” (TOS) have been formed to facilitate citizen participation in improving their communities. This research presents the first ever study of TOS across all Russian regions, drawing on a range of secondary data, lists of registered groups, and a phone survey of potential collaboration partners conducted in 2015. This paper explores the current state of these groups and their potential for collaboration with other civic organizations, government and business.
This study explores the value creation and agent conflict in a company that employs intangibles. The conceptual model of value creation is used to test how intangibles affect companies' outperforming and simultaneously build investors' expectations. The research is carried out using a sample of more than 1,650 European companies covering the period from 2004 to 2011. The study reveals the diverse impact of intangibles on the outperforming of a company by Economic Value Added (EVA) and its ability to create market value (MVA). The study discovers that managers are prone to set positive signals for investors rather than create sustainable competitive advantages. This work contributes primarily to the field of corporate governance in companies that employ intangibles. The issues to be considered when designing rules and incentives for proper communication between managers and investors that drive both outperforming and sustainable value creation are emphasized.
Studying the heterogeneity of consumers allows to price the product differently for consumer segments or groups of a product. In this paper we estimate a model of aggregate demand for Perm Opera and Ballet Theatre focusing on the heterogeneity in price effect on demand for tickets on different performances and seats. We estimate parameters of demand function using censored quantile regression that accounts for the limited capacity of the theatre house. We reveal the price effect variation across different types of theatrical productions and seats with lower elastic demand on ballets and for seats of higher quality.
In the last few years Russian society has been going through a stage of political, cultural and economic transformation that brings change to the lifestyle, attitudes, and the worldviews of Russian citizens. The process of development has embraced not only science and technology, but also social and cultural aspects of life. The contemporary image of Russia is in many ways defined by its younger generation that grew up with new economic, social and political standards. Young people’s values, attitudes and aspirations differ from those of the adult generation of Russians, since the last years have been marked by transformations inside the country, as well as by some global changes. This paper demonstrates the results of a study which aimed to identify the relationship between individual values and attitude towards innovation. 380 respondents, young and adult representatives of the Russian population, took part in the research. The respondents belonged to the younger generation (under 25 years old) or to the adult generation (over 45 years old). The principal instrument used was the method of questionnaires. The methodical inventory consisted of three main blocks oriented to the study of the following constructs: the PVQ-R Method of Measuring individual Values (Schwartz et al., 2012) and the method of Self-Assessment of Innovative Qualities of a Personality (Lebedeva& Tatarko, 2009).The goal of the research was to reveal the age differences in values and attitudes towards innovation, and to find which values determine positive or negative attitude towards innovations among representatives of different generations of Russians. The younger generation values of Individually Directed Thought, Stimulation, Achievement, Power/Dominance stimulate the adoption of innovations.
This volume deals with one of the most understudied aspects of everyday life in Russian society. Its main heroes are the providers of goods and services to whom people turn for healthcare instead of official medical institutions. A wide range of agents is described—from network marketing companies to 'folk' journals on health as well as healers, complementary medicine specialists, and religious organizations.
Krasheninnikova’s book is based on rich empirical observations and avoids both positive and critical assessment of the analyzed phenomena. Her investigation pays particular attention to the legal, social, and economic status of informal healthcare providers. She demonstrates that these agents tend to flourish in bigger towns rather than in small settlements, where public healthcare is lacking. The study reveals the important role of institutions that are generally not related to alternative medicine, such as pharmacies, libraries, and church shops.
The result is a vivid and thorough introduction to the world of self-medication and alternative healing in contemporary Russia. A special emphasis was made on the flexibility of boundaries between formal and informal healthcare due to the evolution of rules and regulations.
Purpose: the paper aims to theoretically justify the link between the endowment of intellectual capital and product novelty, and to find empirical evidence for such a link for SMEs in the Russian business environment.
Design/methodology/approach: the study implements an intellectual capital based view and the concept of novelty proposed by Schumpeter to highlight the crucial role of knowledge for transition to a higher level of competition. Drawing on a literature review, the authors determine three specific components of intellectual capital: foreign human capital, ICT capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners in order to pinpoint a premier position on the next level of the market. For empirical testing of the proposed model, a dataset comprising more than 1400 Russian manufacturing SMEs was used. Estimations were performed with the help of a principal component analysis and ordinal logistic regression.
Findings: the findings reveal that higher intellectual capital endowment promotes the level of product novelty. For Russian manufacturing SMEs, the most important is R&D capital. At the same time, ICT capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners contribute significantly to the probability of transition to a new market level.
Research limitations/implications: the study employs cross sectional data that restrict the analysis of innovation dynamics.
Practical implications: the study appears to have policy implications for the development of governmental programmes for Russian SMEs such as the creation of IC awareness, training for IC management, special programmes for R&D support and ICT capital accumulation.
Originality/value: this paper proposes a new approach for investigating the “knowledge-innovation” link, shifting the focus from a general analysis of product innovation to a level of novelty for product innovation. This is the first empirical study of the relationship between intellectual capital components and the level of product novelty for SMEs in the context of the Russian business environment.
Nowadays, mind mapping is rather popular educational technique. Like any other learning tools, mind maps became a part of modern educational trends like blended learning and computer-supported collaborative learning. Lots of mind mapping software tools are adopted to teaching and learning routines such as educational content delivery or assessment. This paper focuses on the additional automatic evaluation of digital educational mind maps gained from the existing procedures of assessments. The review of automatic graders which support the evaluation process demonstrates that some systematical work is done in automation grading by comparing students’ mind maps with a template. But lots of questions about automatic mind maps’ scoring by retrieving the data from a scored mind map are still open. This paper introduces the automatic grader for educational mind maps (AGEMM) which acts like a teacher’s assistant and calculates several quantitative metrics. The AGEMM is implemented as a web-service and interacted with mind maps prepared in the Coggle web-service through its API. The AGEMM is adopted to a bachelor course. Results demonstrate that scores from the AGEMM may be transformed to scales or criterial levels which are used to evaluation. Moreover, the AGEMM application revealed several problems and shew lines of development which we discuss in the paper.
This article examines theoretical aspects of the co-production concept and illustrates its applicability within the framework of place marketing and tourism. A theoretical exploratory technique based on literature and discussion is employed to propose a conceptual model on residents’ willingness to be engaged in co-production activities.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the linguistic universality and variability of the concept of travel in the English and Russian languages. The linguistic method employs a four-step procedure including analysis of culturally “biased” dictionary entries of travel vocabulary in English and in Russian as well as a comparative analysis of lexical structures in English and Russian discursive contexts. The data include: (a) 14 concise dictionaries containing 14 definitions of the word travel and 42 definitions of its synonyms, and (b) 774 user-generated collocations and word combinations with travel, collected from on-line tourists’ reviews on English and Russian travel websites. The results show that, despite common background information on Destination, Time, and Means of Transport, there are selective ways in which English-speaking and Russian-speaking tourists perceive their travel experiences. In particular, even in the context of global traveling and the use of similar words, English-speaking and Russian-speaking tourists see some of the themes (Memorable travel, Fabulous travel, Nature, Feelings, and Emotions) differently. From an interlinguisticperspective, the results of the study are indicative of stereotypical linguistic reactions to travel experiences in the English language, and of an emphasis on the differentiation of feelings in the Russian language as a manifestation of tourists’ linguistic personality and cultural identity.
The paper explores the use of different types of intangible resources on each phase of the process of internationalization in the context of emerging economies. Assuming that companies follow a gradual process, an internationalization index considering export, import and investment activities is built. The index allows identification of six stages of international expansion, using a database of more than 2,000 Russian companies. The findings reveal that relational capital has a significant positive impact on each stage of internationalization, and that organizational capital improves internationalization except in the last, multinational stage. A higher endowment of human capital is positively associated with first three stages of internationalization.
Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is a process of purchasing goods, services, works and utilities for public needs in a way that ensures benefits not only to the organization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizes damage to the environment. SPP can be part of the overall mechanism of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SPP can contribute to sustainable development, what is the legal framework for it, what factors promote and inhibit SPP, how SPP can be implemented in practice. By analyzing regulatory legal acts, the international SPP experience, a large body of international academic research and reports of international organizations involved in the promotion of SPP, we advance two key features that make public procurement an effective mechanism of sustainable development: (1) the scale of public procurement and (2) the power and authority of procurement bodies. We distinguish between several different schemes of legal support of SPP. The main drivers of SPP are leadership, clarity of strategies and plans that articulate SPP goals, the legislative support of the SPP process, and the information support of procurement specialists. Our review of international experience in SPP is expected to contribute to a more vigorous implementation of SPP by procurement authorities.